The Inca Civilization

The Inca civilization began as a tribe in the Cuzco area, where the legendary first Sapa Inca, Manco Capac founded the Kingdom of Cuzco around 1200. Under the leadership of the descendants of Manco Capac, the Inca state grew to absorb other Andean communities. In 1442, the Incas began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Pachacuti. He founded the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu), which became the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
The empire was split by a civil war to decide who would be Inca king.The problem was that Huascar was a direct son of the Inca King and the Inca Queen and Atahualpa was a son of one of the concubines of the Inca King and his large family it is believed that one of the brothers was from the North part of the Empire (Quito,Ecuador) and the other from Cuzco as they were part of the family of their mothers), which pitted the brothers Huascar and Atahualpa against each other. In 1533, Spanish Conquistadores led by Francisco Pizarro, took advantage of this situation and conquered much of the existing Inca territory.[2] In succeeding years, the invaders consolidated power over the whole Andean region, repressing successive Inca resistance and culminating in the establishment of the Viceroyalty of Perú in 1542. The militant phase of Inca liberation movements ended with the fall of resistance in Vilcabamba during 1573. Though indigenous sovereignty was lost, Inca cultural traditions remain strong among surviving indigenous descendants such as the Quechuas and Aymara people.

Emergence and expansion

inca expansion

inca expansion

Inca expansion (1438-1527 AD)
The Inca people began as small group,a tribe,Perhaps they relate they origens and descenders with some of the pre inca tribes in the valley of Cusco.Some of them were called the Killke culture (the most important), Marcavalles, Sawasiras, Huallas and Lucres in the Cuzco area around the 12th century AD. Under the leadership of Manco Capac, they formed the small city-state of Cuzco (Quechua Qosqo).
In 1438 AD, under the command of Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti, much of modern day southern Peru was conquered. Cuzco was rebuilt as a major city and capital of the newly reorganized empire. Known as Tawantinsuyu, it was a federalist system, consisting of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provincial governments with strong leaders: Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Contisuyu (SW), and Collasuyu (SE). The powerful Inca emperor is also thought to have built Machu Picchu, either as a family home or as a vacation retreat.
Pachacuti would send spies to regions he had wanted in his empire. They would then report back on the political organization, military might, and wealth. The Sapa Inca would then send messages to the leaders of these lands, extolling the benefits of joining his empire. He offered gifts of luxury goods like high quality textiles, and promised that all living in those territories would be materially richer as subject rulers of the Inca. Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. The neighboring rulers’ children would be brought to Cuzco to be taught about Inca administration systems, and then would return to rule their native lands. This allowed the Inca to indoctrinate the former rulers’ children into the Inca nobility, and, with luck, marry their daughters into families at various corners of the empire.

It was traditional for the Inca’s son to lead the army; Pachacuti’s son Túpac Inca began conquests to the north in 1463, continuing them as Inca after Pachacuti’s death in 1471. His most important conquest was the Kingdom of Chimu, the Inca’s only serious rival for the coast of Peru. Túpac Inca’s empire stretched north into modern day Ecuador and Colombia, and his son Huayna Cápac added significant territory to the south. At its height, Tawantinsuyu included Peru and Bolivia, most of what is now Ecuador, a large portion of modern-day Chile, and extended into corners of Argentina and Colombia.
Tawantinsuyu was a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. For example, the Chimú used money in their commerce, while the Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labor. (It is said that Inca tax collectors would take the head lice of the lame and old as a symbolic tribute.) The portions of the Chachapoya that had been conquered were almost openly hostile to the Inca, and the Inca nobles rejected an offer of refuge in their kingdom after their troubles with the Spanish. They ended up being conquered by Francisco Pizarro.

Inca expansion (1438-1527 AD)
The Inca people began as a small group or tribe in the Cuzco area around the 12th century AD. Under the leadership of Manco Capac, they formed the small city-state of Cuzco (Quechua Qosqo).
In 1438 AD, under the command of Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti, much of modern day southern Peru was conquered. Cuzco was rebuilt as a major city and capital of the newly reorganized empire. Known as Tawantinsuyu, it was a federalist system, consisting of a central government with the Inca at its head and four provincial governments with strong leaders: Chinchasuyu (NW), Antisuyu (NE), Contisuyu (SW), and Collasuyu (SE). The powerful Inca emperor is also thought to have built Machu Picchu, either as a family home or as a vacation retreat.
Pachacuti would send spies to regions he had wanted in his empire. They would then report back on the political organization, military might, and wealth. The Sapa Inca would then send messages to the leaders of these lands, extolling the benefits of joining his empire. He offered gifts of luxury goods like high quality textiles, and promised that all living in those territories would be materially richer as subject rulers of the Inca. Most accepted the rule of the Inca as a fait accompli and acquiesced peacefully. The neighboring rulers’ children would be brought to Cuzco to be taught about Inca administration systems, and then would return to rule their native lands. This allowed the Inca to indoctrinate the former rulers’ children into the Inca nobility, and, with luck, marry their daughters into families at various corners of the empire.

It was traditional for the Inca’s son to lead the army; Pachacuti’s son Túpac Inca began conquests to the north in 1463, continuing them as Inca after Pachucuti’s death in 1471. His most important conquest was the Kingdom of Chimor, the Inca’s only serious rival for the coast of Peru. Túpac Inca’s empire stretched north into modern day Ecuador and Colombia, and his son Huayna Cápac added significant territory to the south. At its height, Tawantinsuyu included Peru and Bolivia, most of what is now Ecuador, a large portion of modern-day Chile, and extended into corners of Argentina and Colombia.
Tawantinsuyu was a patchwork of languages, cultures and peoples. The components of the empire were not all uniformly loyal, nor were the local cultures all fully integrated. For example, the Chimú used money in their commerce, while the Inca empire as a whole had an economy based on exchange and taxation of luxury goods and labor. (It is said that Inca tax collectors would take the head lice of the lame and old as a symbolic tribute.) The portions of the Chachapoya that had been conquered were almost openly hostile to the Inca, and the Inca nobles rejected an offer of refuge in their kingdom after their troubles with the Spanish. They ended up being conquered by Francisco Pizarro.

Sponsors

PayPal Acceptance Mark

Categories


PERU ECO ADVENTURES & CULTURAL TRIPS

  •   Urb Kari grande G-18, San Sebastian, Cusco

  •    Mail: info@cuscomachupicchu.com

  •    Phone: (+51) 84-653322

  •    Mobile: (+51) 984764938

ECO FRIENDLY
Carbono Cero



Protected by
Positive SSL


OUR CERTIFICATIONS

CERTIFICADO-GOBIERNO-DEL-CUSCO
CERTIFICADO-PRESTADOR-DE-SERVICIOS-TURISTICO
CERTIFICADO-AUTORIZACION-PERU-ECO-ADVENTURES

CONTACTS


Copyright © 2017 Peru Eco Adventures & Cultural Trips E.I.R.L. All Rights Reserved.